J. A. Woollam Company provides a number of technical papers on general ellipsometry and the application of ellipsometry in various industries. Please select the publications that you are interested in and then fill in the contact information below. This service is provided free of charge.

General Ellipsometry

Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE), Part I: Basic Theory and Typical Applications

Authors: J. A. Woollam, B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. Bungay
SPIE Proceedings, CR72, (1999) 3-28.

Overview of Variable Angle Spectroscopic
Ellipsometry (VASE), Part II:
Advanced Applications
Authors: B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. Bungay
SPIE Proceedings, CR72, (1999) 29-58.
Progress in Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Applications from Vacuum
Ultraviolet to Infrared
Authors: J. Hilfiker, C. Bungay, R. Synowicki, T. Tiwald,
C. Herzinger, B. Johs, G. Pribil,
and J. A. Woollam
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 21, 4, (2003) 1103-1108.
Quantifying the Accuracy of Ellipsometer Systems
Authors: B. Johs, C.M. Herzinger
Phys. Stat. Sol. (c), No.5, (2008)
Survey of Methods to Characterize Thin Absorbing Films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Authors: J. Hilfiker, N.Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S.M. Smith, J.H. Baker, H.G. Tompkins
Thin Solid Films, 516, (2008)


Ellipsometry Characterization of Bulk Acoustic Wave Filters
Authors: E. Nolot, A. Lefevre, J. Hilfiker
Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 5, No.5, 17, (2008) 1168-1171.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE)
for Materials Characterization at
193 and 157nm
Authors: J. Hilfiker, F. G. Celii, W. D. Kim, E. A. Joseph, C. Gross, T. Y. Tsui, R. B. Willecke, J. L. Large, and D. A. Miller
Semiconductor Fabtech, 17, (2002) 87-91.
Immersion Fluids for Lithography:
Refractive Index Measurement Using
Prism Minimum Deviation Techniques
Authors: R. Synowicki, G. Pribil, G. Cooney, C. Herzinger, S. Green, R. H. French,
M. K. Yang, M. F. Lemon, J. H. Burnett, and S. Kaplan
Semiconductor Fabtech, 22, (2004) 55-58.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry as a Potential In-Line Optical Metrology Tool for Relative
Porosity Measurements of Low- K Dielectric Films
Authors: N. V. Edwards, J. Vella, Q. Xie, S. Zollner, D. Werho, I. Adhihetty, R. Liu, T.
C. Russell, J. Vires, and K. H. Junkerd
Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proceedings, 697, (2002) P4.7.1-P4.7.6.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Analysis of InGaN/GaN and AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures Using a Parametric Dielectric Function Model
Authors: J. Wagner, A. Ranakrishnan, H. Obloh, M. Kunzer, K. Köhler, and B. Johs
MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. XX, WY.Y, (2000).


Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Characterisation: Silicon-based Solar Cells
Authors: J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki
Photovoltaics International PV Event Supplement, June/July 2008, 19-21.
Photovoltaic Applications Using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Photovoltaics Application Note, J.A. Woollam Co., Inc. (2008).
Characterization of Si Nanorods by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry with Efficient Theoretical Modeling
Authors: S.H. Hsu, E.S. Liu, Y.C. Chang, J. N. Hilfiker, Y.D. Kim, T.J. Kim, C.J. Lin, and G.R. Lin
Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 205, No. 4, (2008) 876–879
Effect of Chemical Treatment on the Optical Properties of a Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Device Investigated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Authors: S. Kohli, V. Manivannan, J. Hilfiker, P.R. McCurdy, R.A. Enzenroth, K.L. Barth,
W.P. Smith, R. Luebs, W.S. Sampath
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 131, (2009) 21009-1-21009-7
Growth and Characterization of Large Area Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Films
Authors: A. M. Hermann, C. Gonzalez, P. A. Ramakrishnan, D. Balzar, C. H. Marshall,
J. Hilfiker, and T. Tiwald
Thin Solid Films, 387, (2001) 54-56.


VUV and IR Spectroellipsometric Studies of Polymer Surfaces
Authors: J. A. Woollam, C. Bungay, J. Hilfiker, T. Tiwald, and W. Paulson
Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B, 208, (2003) 35-39.
Infrared Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Molecular Orientation Induced
Anisotropy in Polymer Substrates
Authors: C. Bungay and T. Tiwald
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 272-277.
Characterization of UV Irradiated Space Application Polymers by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Authors: C. Bungay, T. Tiwald, M. Devries, B. Dworak, and J. A. Woollam
Polymer Engineering and Science, 40, 2, (2000) 300-309.
Diameter-Dependent Optical Constants of Gold Mesoparticles Electrodeposited on
Aluminum Films Containing Copper
Authors: D. A. Brevnov and C. Bungay
J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, (2005) 14529-14535.
Repeatability of Ellipsometric Data in Cholera Toxin GM1-ELISA Structures
Authors: L.G. Castro, D.W. Thompson, T. Tiwald, E.M. Berberov, J.A. Woollam.
Surface Science 601, (2007) 1795-1803.
Infrared Ellipsometry Studies of Thermal Stability of Protein Monolayers and Multilayers
Authors: H. Arwin, A. Askendahl, P. Tengvall, D.W. Thompson, J.A. Woollam.
Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 5, No.5, (2008) 1438-1441.
Effects of Ion Concentration on Refractive Indices of Fluids Measured by the Minimum
deviation technique
Authors: T. Berlind, G. K. Pribil, D. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, and H. Arwin.
Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 5, No. 5, (2008) 1249–1252.

Optical Coatings

Toward Perfect Antireflection Coatings. 3. Experimental Results Obtained with the Use of Reststrahlen Materials
Authors: J. A. Dobrowolski, Y. Guo, T. Tiwald, P. Ma, and D. Poitras
Applied Optics, 45, 7, (2005) 1555-1562.
Emerging Applications of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Author: J. Hilfiker
Glass Coatings, 1, (2007) 24-27.
Recent Developments in Spectroscopic Ellipsometry for
Materials and Process Control
Authors: J. Hilfiker, B. Johs, J. Hale, C. Herzinger, T. Tiwald, C. Bungay, R. Synowicki,
G. Pribil, and J. A. Woollam
SVC 45th Annual Tech. Conf. Proceedings, (2003) 365-370.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in Optical Coatings Manufacturing
Authors: J. Hilfiker, J. Hale, B. Johs, T. Tiwald, R. Synowicki, C. Bungay,
and J. A. Woollam
SVC 44th Annual Tech. Conf. Proceedings, (2001) 295-300.
Optical Monitoring of Thin-films Using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Authors: D. E. Morton,
B. Johs, and J. Hale
SVC 45th Annual Tech. Conf. Proceedings, (2002) 1-7.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Methods for Thin Absorbing Coatings
Authors: J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, H.G. Tompkins
SVC 51st Annual Tech. Conf. Proceedings, (2008) 511-516.


The Advantages of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry for Flat Panel Display Applications
Authors: J. Hilfiker and R. Synowicki
Semiconductor Fabtech, 6, (1997) 393-398.
Generalized Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Mueller-Matrix Study of
Twisted Nematic and Super Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystals
Authors: J. Hilfiker, B. Johs, C. Herzinger, J. F. Elman, E. Montbach, D. Bryant,
and P. J. Bos
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 596-600
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide
Film Microstructure and Optical Constants
Author: R. Synowicki
Thin Solid Films
, 313-314, (1998) 394-397.

Data Storage

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry for Data Storage Applications
Authors: J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, J. Hale, and C. Bungay
DataTech, 1, (1998) 175-182.
Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Magneto-Optic Kerr Effects
in Co/Pt Multilayers
Authors: X. Gao, D. W. Glenn, S. Heckens, D. Thompson, and J. A. Woollam
Applied Physics, 82, (1997) 4525-4530.


Mueller-Matrix Characterization of Liquid Crystals
Authors: J. Hilfiker, C. Herzinger, T. Wagner, A. Marinoc, G. Delgaisc,
and G. Abbatec
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 591-595.
Generalized Ellipsometry for Orthorhombic, Absorbing Materials: Dielectric
Functions, Phonon Modes and Band-to-Band Transitions of Sb2S3
Authors: M. Schubert, T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, and W. Dollase
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 619-623.
Characterization of Biaxially-Stretched Plastic Films by Generalized Ellipsometry
Authors: J. F. Elman, J. Greener, C. Herzinger, and B. Johs
Thin Solid Films, 313-314, (1998) 814-818.


Use of Molecular Vibrations to Analyze Very Thin Films with Infrared Ellipsometry
Authors: H. G. Tompkins, T. Tiwald, C. Bungay, and A. E. Hooper
J. Phys. Chem. B, 108, 12, (2004) 3777-3780.
Measurement of Rutile TiO2 Dielectric Tensor from
0.148 to 33 mm Using Generalized Ellipsometry
Authors: T. Tiwald and M. Schubert
SPIE Proceedings, 4103, (2000) 19-29.
Optical Determination of Shallow Carrier Profiles Using Fourier Transform Infrared Ellipsometry
Authors: T. Tiwald, D. Thompson, and J. A. Woollam
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 16, (1998) 312-315.
Determination of the Mid-IR Optical Constants of Water and
Lubricants Using IR Ellipsometry Combined with an ATR Cell
Authors: T. Tiwald, D. Thompson, J. A. Woollam, and S. V. Pepper
Thin Solid Films, 313-314, (1998) 718-721.
Low-Orbit-Environment Protective Coating for All-Solid-State
Electrochromic Surface Heat Radiation Control Devices
Authors: E. Franke, H. Neumann, M. Schubert, C. L. Trimble, L. Yan, and J. A. Woollam
Surface and Coatings Technology, 151-152, (2002) 285-288.
Generalized Far-Infrared Magneto-Optic
Ellipsometry for Semiconductor
Layer Structures: Determination of Free-Carrier
Effective-Mass, Mobility, and
Concentration Parameters in n-Type GaAs
Authors: M. Schubert, T. Hofmann, and C. Herzinger
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 20, 2, (2003) 347-356.

In Situ

In situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry as a Versatile Tool for Studying Atomic Layer Deposition
Authors: E. Langereis, S.B.S. Heil, H.C.M Knoops, W. Keuning, M.C.M. van de Sanden, and W.M.M. Kessel
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 (2009) 073001 (19pp).
Recent Developments in Spectroscopic Ellipsometry for In Situ Applications
Authors: B. Johs, J. Hale, N. J. Ianno, C. Herzinger, T. Tiwald, and J. A. Woollam
SPIE Proceedings, 4449, (2001) 41-57.
General Virtual Interface Algorithm for In Situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometric
Data Analysis
Author: B. Johs
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 632-638.
Dielectric Function of Thin Metal Films by Combined In Situ Transmission
ellipsometry and Intensity Measurements
Authors: G. Pribil, B. Johs, and N. J. Ianno
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 443-449.
Closed-Loop Control of Resonant Tunneling Diode Barrier Thickness Using
In Situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Authors: J. A. Roth, W. S. Williamson, D. H. Chow, G. L. Olson, and B. Johs
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, 18, (2000) 1439-1442.


Optical Properties of Bulk c-ZrO2, c-MgO and a-As2S3 Determined by
Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Authors: R. Synowicki and T. Tiwald
Thin Solid Films, 455-456, (2004) 248–255.
Vacuum Ultra-violet Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Single- and Multi-phase Nitride Protective Films
Authors: S.M. Aouadi, A. Bohnhoff, T. Amriou, M. Williams, J.N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, and
J.A. Woollam
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 18, (2006) S1691–S1701.
Suppression of Backside Reflections from Transparent Substrates
Authors: R.A. Synowicki
Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 5, No. 5, (2008) 1085–1088.
Ellipsometric Determination of Optical Constants for Silicon
and Thermally Grown Silicon Dioxide via a Multi-sample,
Multi-wavelength, Multi-angle Investigation
Authors: C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson
Applied Physics, 83, 6, (1998) 3323-3336.
Dielectric Function Representation by B-splines
Authors: B. Johs, J.S. Hale
Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), (2008) 1-5.







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