The AutoRetarder® measures Δ accurately even when close to 0° or 180° which helps characterize thin films on transparent substrates, such as glass or plastics. Applications include decorative coatings, anti-reflection and high-reflection layers and stacks, low-emissivity films, electrochromic and photochromic layers and more.
Accurate wavelength selection using monochromator allows measurements at the operating wavelength for optics, e.g. 1550nm, 1310nm, 980nm, 632.8nm, 589nm …
VASE is sensitive to layer thickness down to sub-nanometer. For absorbing layers, the VASE allows measurement of SE and Transmission Intensity (T). When analyzed simultaneously, SE + T often allow determination of n, k, and t. For example, this thin metal layer is only 14 nm thick.