The AutoRetarder® measures Δ accurately even when close to 0° or 180° which helps characterize thin films on transparent substrates, such as glass or plastics. Applications include decorative coatings, anti-reflection and high-reflection layers and stacks, low-emissivity films, electrochromic and photochromic layers and more.
Accurate wavelength selection using monochromator allows measurements at the operating wavelength for optics, e.g. 1550nm, 1310nm, 980nm, 632.8nm, 589nm …
VASE is sensitive to layer thickness down to sub-nanometer. For absorbing layers, the VASE allows measurement of SE and Transmission Intensity (T). When analyzed simultaneously, SE + T often allow determination of n, k, and t. For example, this thin metal layer is only 14 nm thick.
Bandgap, electronic transitions and critical points can be measured for semiconductor materials such as GaN, InP, SiGe, CdTe, etc. Good wavelength resolution and ability to measure depolarization insure accurate optical constants.
The monochromator is positioned before the sample, so only low intensity monochromatic light strikes the sample. This prevents exposure of photosensitive samples.